Council of Chairs of Training Councils Internship Matrix

Doctoral internships in psychology are a vital and necessary part of developing a diverse psychologist workforce in our communities and country. Such internships provide advanced doctoral students with an intensive, capstone experience that is required for completion of doctoral training as well as state and/or provincial licensure. Internship sites also contribute to the development of the psychologist workforce, bringing together trainees with contemporary research and evidence based practice concepts, and diversifying the work of staff psychologists within their settings. Often, doctoral training in psychology aligns with an institution’s mission as well.

The Internship Matrix provides resources for those interested in learning more about developing doctoral internships in psychology. Information is included on the various sites that host internships, how to fund them, accreditation, and site-specific support for internships in many different settings (e.g.,  Veteran’s Affairs hospitals, university counseling centers, state hospitals, academic health centers, child/adolescent psychiatric or pediatrics, community health centers/federally qualified health centers/rural health clinics, community mental health centers, correctional facilities, psychology training clinics, and school districts). You are welcome to go to the specific site-related information most relevant to you, and follow up with questions to the Association(s) most relevant to your site. The Matrix joins other useful reference materials (including the Internship Development Toolkit) on the Council of Chairs of Training Councils (CCTC) webpage located at

What is a psychology internship?
Please see:

Also see: Canadian Psychological Association Accreditation Standards and Procedures, 2011, page 45:

The internship (or residency) is the final but essential step in preparation for professional practice in psychology at the doctoral level. It is at this step that graduate students are afforded the opportunity to apply theoretical and technical knowledge, to develop and refine professional skills, and most importantly, to integrate the theoretical, practical, and scientific in their emergent roles as professional psychologists. It is this integrative process and requirement that sets the internship apart from earlier practicum experiences that focus more concretely on the acquisition of skills. Finally, the internship socializes students into their professional roles and facilitates the transition from student to independent professional.

How do I start to develop an internship?
Council of Chairs of Training Councils, Psychology Internship Toolkit:

APPIC Mentoring Program (US or Canadian programs):

Policies procedures, and documentation examples: (see APPIC Training Resources and Sharepoint: )

Canadian Council of Professional Psychology Programs (CCPPP) Mentoring Program (Canadian Programs) – Contact Dr. Mike Teschuk at for a mentor:

What is the value of developing a psychology internship?
How can I advocate for the support needed to establish or maintain an internship?
Canadian Advocacy information, Advocacy Section:

Examples of Advocacy letters in Canada: (section appuis)

What funding is available for my internship program?
United States:

General Information

APA Stimulus Funding

Graduate Psychology Education

APPIC Accreditation Readiness Project

NCSPP Internship Grants Program

Cost-Benefits Analyses: content/uploads/2014/08/InternshipToolkitCCTC.pdf


Canadian Internships have historically been funded by the institution or directly from the provincial ministry. Information about program funding in internships across Canada is updated yearly by CCPPP:

How can Canadian Council of Professional Psychology Programs (CCPPP) membership be helpful to me?
CCPPP represents the various university-based psychology programs and psychology internship settings in Canada that train professional psychologists such as clinical psychologists, counselling psychologists, and clinical neuropsychologists, as well as other branches of professional psychology.

CCPPP website

Becoming a member

How can my internship program become accredited?
US internships are accredited by the American Psychological Association (APA) and Canadian Internships are accredited by the Canadian Psychological Association (CPA). There are some commonalities across the standards, as well as some differences, partly due to the differences between the health care and government systems in the two countries.  On the whole, however, the systems of accreditation are deemed to be equivalent.

In 2012, the Canadian Psychological Association (CPA) and American Psychological Association (APA) approved and signed the First Street Accord.  The Accord is a mutual recognition agreement on accreditation.

Also note that it has long been the position of the Association of State and Provincial Psychology Boards (ASPPB) that the North American regulatory bodies they represent treat APA and CPA accreditation equivalently.


How can my internship program become accredited by the American Psychological Association (APA)?
What type of resources are there for specific internship settings?
Academic Health Centers

Academic health centers are stimulating and challenging training environments that offer students opportunities to develop broad-based competencies, as well as to develop specialty areas of focus. In particular, they offer a unique atmosphere for interprofessional practice and acquisition of skills related to consultation, referral, and functioning as part of an interprofessional  team. Interns in academic medical centers have exposure to inpatient and outpatient settings, and usually obtain greater exposure to cultural and individual diversity. Further, being well-versed in evidence-based practice and having clinical research opportunities make such internships very attractive to qualified trainees.

For programs who are considering implementing a predoctoral internship within an academic medical center, the following questions might be relevant:

●  What department will be the “home” of the program? Who will fund the program? How will space for the interns to provide clinical services be arranged?
●  What is the administration’s perspective on psychology training in general? How is the relationship between psychologists, psychiatrists, and other physicians/providers? What other types of training does the department offer (e.g., medical residency and fellowships, psychology practica, etc.)? How many opportunities exist for the interns to interact with trainees from other disciplines?
●  What exactly will the interns do? Will there be opportunities to support the trajectory to independent practice as they become more competent? How can you provide the development of general competencies (e.g., assessment, diagnosis, intervention)? What opportunities might the interns have to acquire some specialized training? Are there research programs that could involve interns and prepare them for more academic careers?
●  How diverse is your department and your institution in terms of the population that it serves and the staff and faculty who work there? How will your program support the development of multicultural competence and prepare interns to work with individual difference variables? How can you provide didactic and experiential training in this area?

Funding considerations

US sites

●  How will training activities and staff/faculty/intern salaries be supported?
●  Will interns be able to bill for their services?

Canadian sites (Academic Health Science Centers and Community Hospitals)

●  Will the institution support faculty with the time needed to provide supervision and to a Training Director to oversee the program?
●  How will the internship remuneration be funded (e.g. at the level of the institution, department, or program). If the remuneration is funded by specific programs, will interns be able to gain experience that is diverse enough to provide broad-based training?

Internships at academic medical centers are highly sought after by trainees. If you are interested in developing such a program, consider the following resources:

APPIC: A host of resources are available to individuals considering starting an internship program.

Directory: Review internship brochures from programs at comparable institutions by consulting You may use the links for individual internship sites to learn more about their programs.
Mentorship: APPIC also offers consultation, mentorship, and support to individuals who are considering establishing a new internship program.

APA’s Office of Consultation and Accreditation: Obtain information about the requirements for accreditation and the guidelines and principles relevant for developing and maintaining an accredited program.

Canadian Council of Professional Psychology Programs (CCPPP) Mentoring Program (Canadian Programs) – Contact Dr. Mike Teschuk at for a mentor

Child/Adolescent Psychiatric or Pediatrics

Specialty Definition:

Clinical Child Psychology is a field/specialty of professional psychology, which brings together the basic tenets of clinical psychology with a thorough background in child, adolescent and family development and developmental psychopathology. Clinical child and adolescent psychologists conduct scientific research and provide psychological services to infants, toddlers, children, and adolescents. The research and practices of Child Psychology are focused on understanding, preventing, diagnosing, and treating psychological, cognitive, emotional, developmental, behavioral, and family problems of children. Of particular importance to clinical child and adolescent psychologists is a scientific understanding of the basic psychological needs of children and adolescents and how the family and other social contexts influence socio-emotional adjustment, cognitive development, behavioral adaptation, and health status of children and adolescents. There is an essential emphasis on a strong empirical research base recognizing the need for the documentation and further development of evidence-based assessments and treatments in clinical child and adolescent psychology.

Founded in 1969, the field has broad interdisciplinary theoretical underpinnings and draws from clinical, developmental, social, cognitive, behavioral, counseling, community and school psychology. Areas of expertise within the field include, but are not limited to: psychosocial, developmental and contextual factors contributing to the etiology, course and outcome of pediatric medical conditions; assessment and treatment of behavioral and emotional concomitants of illness, injury, and developmental disorders; prevention of illness and injury; promotion of health and health-related behaviors; education, training and mentoring of psychologists and providers of medical care; improvement of health care delivery systems and advocacy for public policy that serves the needs of children, adolescents, and their families.

In the US, many clinical child and adolescent psychologists pursue additional training in Pediatric Psychology, an integrated field of science and practice in which the principles of psychology are applied within the context of pediatric health. The field aims to promote the health and development of children, adolescents, and their families through use of evidence-based methods.

      Clinical Child Guidelines: Council of Specialties website
      The Society of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology (Division 53) Homepage
      The American Board of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
      Society of Pediatric Psychology (Division 54) Homepage
      American Board of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology ABCCAP
      American Board of Professional Psychology

Jackson, Y., Alberts, Jr., F.L., & Roberts, M.C. (2010). Clinical child psychology: A practice specialty serving children, adolescents, and their families. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 41

Community Mental Health Centers

In the U.S., Community Mental Health Centers (CMHCs) are public or private non-profit agencies that provide services to all age groups. Programs within the Centers typically vary from traditional outpatient clinics to intensive day programs, outreach programs, and residential services. The programs are staffed with professionals from varying disciplines including psychology, psychiatry, nursing, social work, counselors, and case managers.  With a mandate to serve low-income individuals and families, many of the clients seen at CMHCs are traditionally underserved and disadvantaged. However, many Centers also provide treatment to the general public, including people with private insurance.

Most Community Mental Health Center internships provide evidence-based applied training in conducting individual, family, and group psychotherapy, as well as assessment and crisis intervention. Due to the diverse client population, there is often an emphasis on developing multicultural competence in all assessment and treatment related activities. It is common for interns to collaborate with and provide consultation to other professionals including primary care providers, teachers, probation officers, and vocational counselors. Increasingly, CMHCs are partnering with schools and medical clinics to provide services in integrated care settings.

A prospective CMHC internship site should consider which of its internal programs are best suited for being placements or rotations. Some internships offer generalist training from which matched interns may select 2 or more rotations (e.g. adult outpatient and child intensive), while others have specific tracks that focus on a specific population (e.g. Adult Track, Child Track, Integrated Care Track). Interns from different tracks should have some common training experiences (such as seminars and group supervision or case conferences) to allow for peer learning, support, and socialization.

For Canadian CMHCs or Primary Care facilities such as Family Health Teams
The programs are typically staffed with professionals from varying disciplines including psychology, psychiatry, family physicians, nursing, social work, dietitians. Questions for consideration include:

●  Are there a sufficient number of psychologists to provide supervision for the interns?
●  Will the institution support faculty with the time needed to provide supervision and a Training Director to oversee the program?
●  How will the internship remuneration be funded?


Consortia are internship programs that have more than one site.  There are additional accreditation criteria required for consortia by both APA and CPA. There are several variations of consortia including:

●  the rotational model (interns complete several month rotations at each site for training; each site has a set number of interns, but these are not the same throughout the year),
●  the divided week model (interns spend a few days/week at 2 or 3 different sites and meet together for training; each site has a set number of interns, but any intern is not within a given site for 40 hours/week),
●  a combination of the rotation and divided week model,
●  multiple organizations collaborate to form the consortium and the interns meet together for training and group supervision but the interns stay with one agency the entire year,
●  the wheel or sun model (for instance, the doctoral program is at the center of the sun, developing an affiliated consortium program with multiple sites as the spokes or rays; interns may train at only one site for the year, or at two different sites over 2 years half-time at each site; interns meet together for training coordinated by the doctoral program).

Although multiple sites are involved in the training, in Canada, there is typically one agency that serves as the host agency and interns are hired into this agency. The other partner sites submit funding to the host agency, with each site contributing funds not only for salary and benefits but also for other internship costs. Different agencies will have residents working at their sites equivalent to the FTEs they contribute.

In addition, some consortia are affiliated with doctoral programs.  Exclusively affiliated programs only accept students from the doctoral program; partially affiliated programs reserve some positions for students from the doctoral program (e.g., they may accept students from the doctoral program only during Phase I and then open remaining positions nationally in Phase II, or may rank order students from the doctoral program first, and other students next).

Internship Development Toolkit:

APPIC Consortium Membership Criteria:

APPIC Consortium Listserv:

APA Webinars:
Part I: Internship Consortia – Considerations for Development:
Short URL:

Part II: Internship Consortia – Considerations for Accreditation:
Short URL:

The CPA also includes some guidelines for the development of internship consortia in their Accreditation Standards and Procedures: Canadian Psychological Association (2011). Accreditation Standards and Procedures for Doctoral Programmes and Internships in Professional Psychology, pp. 67-69.

Erickson Cornish, J., Smith-Acuña, S., & Nadkarni, L. (2005). Developing an exclusively affiliated psychology internship consortium:  A novel approach to internship training.  Professional Psychology:  Research and Practice, 36 (1), 9 – 15.

Prison/Other Correctional Facility

The correctional psychologist is a specialized professional with training and expertise in clinical, forensic, developmental, and behavioral domains.  In the correctional setting, the Department of Psychological Services helps to promote client growth and independence by providing a wide array of clinical and behavioral services. In a department comprised of clinicians from varying theoretical and educational backgrounds, psychologists are exposed to a variety of approaches and clinical orientations.

In addition to employing mental health professionals in prisons, correctional facilities can also create internship opportunities to students completing their last year of formal training at the doctoral level. Doctoral Internships in the area of correctional psychology train numerous students each year to provide quality mental health services to various agencies. Interns seeking experience in Correctional Psychology in the unique amalgamation between corrections and clinical practice. Areas of growth often include the effective establishment of firm boundaries amongst severely personality disordered individuals, the identification of symptom exaggeration and attempts at secondary gain, and working with poorly motivated clients in need of treatment. Interns in correctional settings are also challenged with the distinctive task of learning to effectively implement a sophisticated integration of clinical skill and therapeutic expertise with the maintenance of personal safety and institutional security. However, despite the inherent challenges of correctional environments, internship programs can provide the opportunity to hone a training clinician’s unique skill set to meet the specialized needs of mental health treatment in correctional settings.

The internship experience requires one year of full-time training to be completed in no fewer than twelve (12) months, and no more than twenty-four (24) months. While training in correctional psychology will include both individual and group supervision, assessment, and didactic seminars, individualized clinical experiences vary significantly across the training sites. There are major and minor internships in correctional psychology. The American Psychology-Law Society has compiled a list of existing programs:

Correctional Psychology Internship Programs have historically placed a high percentage of interns in full-time positions in correctional agencies upon completion of the training experience.

Please see the links below for examples of what correctional psychology internship programs can provide.



Prisons or other correctional facilities that choose to employ psychology doctoral interns help train the student to master the basic skills of psychology and to apply them within this setting. Interns become part of the corrections community, and help sites maintain an essential interest in the theory and application of learning principles, cognitive behavior therapy, and positive behavior support.

Psychology Training Clinics

The Association of Psychology Training Clinics (APTC) is primarily dedicated to supporting quality practicum training within doctoral psychology programs (Hatcher & Wise, 2014; Wise & Cellucci, 2014). Approximately 65-70% of accredited programs now support in-house training clinics to allow for practicum training that is “sequential, cumulative, and graded in complexity”. Consequently, student trainees working in these clinics develop the competencies needed for entry into the internship experience. Although this remains the focus of APTC, practicum training clinics may be an untapped resource for furthering internship creation.

In recent years, some APTC training clinics (particularly those associated with larger or multiple doctoral programs such as school and clinical) have expanded their mission so as to also be involved in internship training. A brief 2014 survey indicated that approximately 10% of APTC clinics had some connection to internship training in health services and another 24% expressed moderate interest (Kirk, & Cellucci, 2015). This involvement ranges on a continuum from clinics arranging a local internship for a single student, serving as an outpatient rotation for an established hospital-based internship, to organizing a fully accredited. Another clinic serves as a captured (captive in Canada) internship for their associated clinical program as well as incorporating practicum training. Clinics are also a logical hub for possible consortium internships and several clinics have developed such models providing school-based mental health services. Funding and personnel were reported to be the major resources needed for clinics expanding into internship training, as well as more information about internship program accreditation and technical support.  APTC is happy to share internship-related information and contacts as more training clinics consider their role in supporting or creating internships.

Association of Psychology Training Clinics:

Hatcher, R.L. & Wise, E.H. (2014). The practicum in professional psychology. In B.W. Johnson & N.J. Kaslow (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of education & training in professional psychology (pp. 133-152). New York: Oxford University Press.

Mochrie, K. & Cellucci, T. (2015, April). APTC involvement in internship training. Poster presented at the Annual APTC Conference, Austin, TX.

Wise, E. & Cellucci, T. (2014). Using the ethical context to enhance practicum training. Training and Education in Professional Psychology, 8, 221-228.

School Districts

Division 16 (School Psychology), with support from the Council of Directors of School Psychology Programs (CDSPP), the National Association of School Psychologists (NASP), and Trainers of School Psychologists (TSP), are working together to assist school districts as they develop new APPIC internship sites. Support from the Grant Program for School Psychology Internships (GPSPI) provides consultation and funding. The long-term goal is for these new APPIC internship programs to pursue APA accreditation.

Division 16:

University Counseling Centers

Areas crucial to a university counseling center (UCC) internship program focus on those specific to the student population and the consequent essential functions of UCC psychologists. Such issues include a commitment to diversity and social justice in all aspects of training, a multitude of training resources to remain current within the subfield, a wide range of services including assessment, treatment, outreach and training in training, and alignment with accreditation standards as well as university policies.

The largest organization to support UCC doctoral internships in the United States is The Association of Counseling Center Training Agencies (ACCTA), and a UCC training site need not be accredited to join ACCTA and access all resources and supports, as long as the site has a commitment toward accreditation. You can check out some of the resources available to ACCTA members at:

United States:

Community Health Centers/Federally Qualified Health Centers/Rural Health Clinics

According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Services and Resources Administration, community health centers (CHC; e.g., federally qualified health centers, rural health clinics) serve a “medically underserved population” by providing “appropriate and necessary services with fees adjusted on patients’ ability to pay…. Overall, health centers emphasize coordinated primary and preventive services or a ‘medical home’ that promotes reductions in health disparities for low‐income individuals, racial and ethnic minorities, rural communities and other underserved populations” (; see also;

These services are typically interpreted as primary medical care, behavioral health care, and dental care. If a CHC has licensed psychologists on staff it may be able to have a doctoral psychology internship. In many cases, this would allow interns the possibility of providing integrated care (see below) in conjunction with the medical and dental providers (if any). In some locations, there may not be options for community referrals and therefore the interns may be able to provide more traditional therapy services in addition to the brief behavioral type of service typically offered in integrated care.  Some CHCs also offer psychological assessment under the supervision of licensed psychologists.

Because CHCs offer services to underserved populations on a sliding scale, interns have tremendous opportunities to work with culturally and economically diverse groups. Further, working in a primary care clinic ensures that interns will have daily opportunities for interprofessional consultation and collaboration. In addition, the CHC environment is rife with opportunities for interns to hone their skills with conducting literature reviews, qualitative and quantitative research, and program development/evaluation in a front-line environment. The fast-paced culture of primary care settings and the nature of integrated care mean that a CHC internship is not a good fit for all interns and these types of placements are new enough that many intern applicants may not have training and/or experience to draw upon so internship staff will need to have a good screening process and be ready to spend time helping new interns get up to speed.

For more information on integrated care, see the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality “Academy for Integrating Behavioral Health and Primary Care” ( and the SAMHSA-HRSA Center for Integrated Health Solutions ( In addition, the APA’s Center for Psychology and Health website ( includes a section for students at the bottom of the homepage and there is a link for training directories, including internships. It is an incomplete list that was last updated in 2013 that may provide some examples. The same section includes information for training programs.

Private Hospitals

(Section under construction)

State Hospitals

Seriously and Persistently Mental Illness (SPMI) assessment and treatment is a top priority at State Civilian inpatient hospital settings. After often utilizing many community resources, many patients struggle with reintegration and experience tremendous barriers as a result. Our mental health care providers play a critical role in helping the SPMI population reclaim their lives by providing best-practice and/or evidenced-based care. Civilian inpatient state hospitals support this mission by supporting our mental health professionals in developing innovative ideas and training at their fingertips within state funded resources. When APA students join accredited civilian inpatient state hospitals, they become a core member of an interdisciplinary care team structure, collaborating with both the treatment teams and other mental health professionals to establish the best course of treatment for patients’ needs.

APA internships within civilian inpatient state hospitals are funded, with oversight provided by the Commission of Accreditation (APA CoA) and State Departments of Health Services; many of which have been in place for many years. The WHPSHA Psychology Training Council consists of all the Psychology training directors in the western psychiatric hospital settings and maintains extensive resources to facilitate training program development. There is a formal mentoring program in place to assist new and potential WHPSHA training directors. State hospital internships are required to obtain and maintain APA accreditation. Additional background and information can be obtained at: and state hospital websites

VA Internships

Veterans’ mental health is a top priority at VA. After returning from combat, many Veterans struggle to readjust to life at home. Our mental health care providers play a critical role in helping these Veterans reclaim their lives by providing cutting-edge care. VA supports this mission by ensuring that our mental health professionals have the most innovative technologies, facilities, and training at their fingertips. When you join VA, you will be a core member of our interdisciplinary care team structure, collaborating with both primary care and other mental health professionals to establish the right course of treatment for patients.

VA internships are funded and provided oversight by the Office of Academic Affiliations (OAA) in VA Central Office and only available for US citizens. OAA periodically provides opportunity to apply for funding for new internship programs.  The VA Psychology Training Council consists of all the Psychology training directors in VA and maintains extensive resources to facilitate training program development. There is a formal mentoring program in place to assist new and potential VA training directors. VA internships are required to obtain and maintain APA accreditation.  Additional background about VA Psychology Training can be found at:

Note:  If you are interested in developing an internship in a setting not listed above, please contact